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Hill & Tribal Culture tours

Bangladesh Travel  Homes  is offering customize tour for the tourist who are interested for hill tracks tours & discovering the diverse lifestyle of indigenous people of Bangladesh. We are confident to give you a lifetime enjoyable experience!

Introduction: 

This is agreeable that Bangladesh is not a tourist's haunted places like others in the world's tourist map. But this poor and tiny country has some unique attractions to offer to her tourists.

    

 

 

 

 

         Tribal women weaving own cloths
The indigenous hill tribe is one of the main attraction in Bangladesh. The tribal population consisted of 897,828 persons, just over 1 percent of the total population, at the time of the 1981 census.

They lived primarily in the Chittagong Hills and in the regions of Mymanshing, Sylhet, and Rajshahi. The majority of the tribal population (778,425) lived in rural settings, where many practiced shifting cultivation.
Most tribal people were of SinoTibetan descent and had distinctive Mongoloid features. They differed in their social organization, marriage customs, birth and death rites, food, and other social customs from the people of the rest of the country. They spoke Tibeto-Burman languages. In the mid-1980s, the percentage distribution of tribal population by religion was Hindu 24, Buddhist 44, Christian 13, and others 19.

The four largest tribes were the Chakmas, Marmas (or Maghs), Tipperas (or Tipras), and Mrus (or Moorangs). The tribes tended to intermingle and could be distinguished from one another more by differences in their dialect, dress, and customs than by tribal cohesion. Only the Chakmas and Marmas displayed formal tribal organization, although all groups contained distinct clans. By far the largest tribe, the Chakmas were of mixed origin but reflected more Bengali influence than any other tribe. Unlike the other tribes, the Chakmas and Marmas generally lived in the highland valleys. Most Chakmas were Buddhists, but some practiced Hinduism or animism.

Of Burmese ancestry, the Marmas regarded Burma as the center of their cultural life. Members of the Marma tribe disliked the more widely used term Maghs, which had come to mean pirates. Although several religions, including Islam, were represented among the Marmas, nearly all of the Marmas were Buddhists.

The Tipperas were nearly all Hindus and accounted for virtually the entire Hindu population of the Chittagong Hills. They had migrated gradually from the northern Chittagong Hills. The northern Tipperas were influenced by Bengali culture. A small southern section known as the Mrungs showed considerably less Bengali influence.

The Mros, considered the original inhabitants of the Chittagong Hills, lived on hilltops and often fortified their villages. They had no written language of their own, but some could read the Burmese and Bangla scripts. Most of them claimed to be Buddhists, but their religious practices were largely animistic.

 
Major Destinations of tribes in Bangladesh

1. Mymansing (Madhupur/Halua Ghat)

2. Sylhet region

3. Rangamati

4. Bandarban

5. Khagrachori

6. Cox's Bazar

7. Patuakhali

                                                                                                      
Major Tribes in Bangladesh

Chakma,

 The the largest ethnic group of Bangladesh. They also call themselves Changmas. They are concentrated in the central and northern parts of the Chittagong hill tracts where they live amidst several other ethnic groups. Exact population figures are lacking but the most reliable estimates put their number at 140,000 in 1956 and 230,000 in 1981. According to the 1991 population census, there were about 253,000 Chakmas. More than 90 percent of them are concentrated in rangamati and khagrachhari districts. About 100,000 Chakmas also live in India, particularly in the states of Arunachal, Mizoram and Tripura. Small groups have settled in other countries as well

Marma

The second largest ethnic minority group in Bangladesh. Most Marmas live in the three hill districts of Rangamati, Bandarban and Khagrachhari. Some Marmas, however, live in the coastal districts of cox's bazar and Patuakhali. These Marmas name themselves rakhain and many consider them as a separate ethnic community. According to the 1991 census, the number of Marmas in Bangladesh is 157,301

Tripura

The after chakmas and marmas, the third largest tribal group of population in the chittagong hill tracts (CHT) region. Tripura people now living in Bangladesh had their original residence in the Indian state of Tripura, although many believe that they are in fact descendents of the Bodo group of people, considered as the forefathers of the peoples of Assam, Burma and Thailand. Tripuras initially migrated to Comilla, Sylhet and Chittagong areas as well as to some other regions like Noakhali, Dhaka, Faridpur and Barisal. In course of time, however, they concentrated largely in the CHT, especially in and around ramgarh and khagrachhari accounting for nearly 80% of all Tripuras now living in the CHT area. Tripuras call themselves Tipara and also Tipra, while Marmas call them Mrong, lusheis call them Tuibuk and pankhos Bai. The 1881 census recorded the distribution of Tripura people as: CHT 15,054, Comilla 1,895, Faridpur 101, Barisal 45, Noakhali 16, Dhaka 4, and Sylhet and other areas 268. The number of Tripuras in the CHT area was 79,772 in1991. This figure accounts for 6.6% of the total tribal population in the CHT

Santals,

 The Santals an ethnic group in Bangladesh. Mainly living in the Himalayan sub-mountain region in different districts of Rajshahi division. Their principal home is in radha (in West Bengal), the forests of adjacent Bihar (Jhadkhand) and Orissa, and Chhota Nagpur. The British government assigned a special territory for their living and named it Santal Pargana. It is difficult to definitely say when and why they settled in the East Bengal region. But the census of 1881 shows that there were Santal settlements in the districts of pabna, jessore, khulna and even in chittagong. A survey of the Santal population of present Bangladesh area conducted in 1941 recorded their number as 829,025. The censuses organised after the Partition of Bengal (1947) did not count Santals as a separate group of people, and consequently, their exact number in East Pakistan could not be determined. According to an estimate made by Christian missionaries in the 1980s, the Santal population in northern Bangladesh was over one hundred thousand. According to the 1991 census, the Santal population was over two hundred thousand.
 

Garo

Garo, The once a nomadic tribe of the Bodo group of Mongoloids now living in different areas of Bangladesh and in the adjacent states of India. Their faces are round, hair and eyes black, foreheads extended to eye area, eyebrows deep, eyes small, noses flat and jaws high. Beards rarely grow on their cheeks and they almost have no hair on their body. Garos are short but usually have stout bodies with wide chests and bulky arms, legs and muscles. Their skin is yellowish and smooth. Garos are said to have an ancestral relationship with China. There are some similarities between the Chinese and Garos in language as well as folk culture.

Manipuri

 The one of the many ethnic communities in Bangladesh. Their original homeland is Manipur, once a sovereign state and now the northeastern zonal state of India. In the early days, Manipur had different names such as Kyangleipak, Kyangkleipang, Kyanglei, Meitrabak, and Mekhali and the Manipuris were known as Meitei. During the reign of Maharaj Garibniwaz (1709-1748), some missionaries arrived here from sylhet. There was an opinion that these missionaries named this land 'Manipur' and its principal inhabitants, Manipuris. The mahabharata has a mention of Manipur and the missionaries but as it was discovered later, Manipur of Mahabharata and Manipur of Sylhet were not in the same place.

Rakhain

Rakhain, a small tribe of arakan origin belonging to the Bhotbarmi community of the Mongoloids. Many consider that Rakhains and their neighbours, marmas are in fact, the same tribe. The skull of Rakhains is round, their nose is flat, they have black hair, they are usually short in height, and their complexion is light brown.

Tanchangya

Tanchangya, The a small ethnic community living in the chittagong hill tracts. In terms of population they rank 5th among ethnic communities of Bangladesh. According to the 1991 census, their number was 21,057 and the number of Tanchangya households was 4,043. Tanchangyas live in the Hill districts of rangamati, bandarban and khagrachhari, Boisyabili area of rangunia upazila in chittagong district, and in ukhia and teknaf areas of cox's bazar district. Like other tribals, Tanchangyas build their habitation in forested slopes of hills. Tanchangyas also live in the southeastern regions of Tripura, Mizoram and Manipur States of India, as well as in the arakan region of Myanmar. In Arakan they are known as 'dounnak'. Anthropologically, they belong to the Mongoloid group. They speak pali, prakrit and ancient Bengali, all part of the Aryan group of languages. Tanchangyas are modest in nature
 

Hajong,

Hajong, an ethnic group living in the hilly parts of mymensingh district. Some of them live in the sherpur, sylhet and netrokona regions. Their main settlements are in sreebardi, haluaghat, nalitabari, Susong durgapur, kalmakanda and Birishiri areas. In terms of ethnicity, they are descendents of the Kachhari people of the Mongoloid race. Several hundred years ago they came to the region adjacent to the Garo hills and started living there. Hajong people are divided into two main classes - Paramarthi and Byayabchhadi.

In their life-style, Hajong people maintain, to a large extent, their traditional ethos of simplicity, honesty, and hospitality as well as other common plebeian characteristics. False play and deceit are rare in this society. Like mundas, Santals and Garos, Hajong people have protested vehemently against injustice, oppression, exploitation and persecution in the past and have histories of rebellion against feudal and imperialist forces. They took part in historic movements like the Hatikheda movement, the tonk movement, agitations against zamindars, and the tebhaga movement

Magh,

Magh,a major tribe of Bangladesh comprising marmas of the hills and rakhains of the plains. Ethnically, Maghs are Mongoloid and culturally, they are close to the population of Myanmar. The Marma community is headed by two chiefs (Raja): the Bohmoung and the Mong. The former resides at bandarban, while the latter at ramgarh (khagrachhari). Maghs are one of the major Buddhist groups of the Arakanese stock

 

Mru

Mru, (also Mro) a small ethnic minority, who live scattered in the hill district of bandarban. They live mostly in Toin, Mangu, Toinfa, Luloing, Uttarhangar, Dhakkinhangar, Tankabati, Harinjuri, Takerpanchari, Renikhyong, Pantola, Thankhyong, Swalok, Tindow, Singpa, Alikhoung and Bhariyatali mouzas. The Mru population in chittagong hill tracts in 1956 was 17000 and in 1981, it stood at 20,000.
 

Bawm

 The a small tribe in chittagong hill tracts. Ethnically, Bawms belong to the Mongolian stock. They look like the chakmas and the marmas. The word Bawm means ties. The concept of such ties has developed from their culture of doing collectively all things of life, including hunting, singing and dancing, eating and drinking or offering homage to gods. Bawms live in 70 villages of ruma, thanchi, rwoangcchari and bandarban Sadar upazilas of Bandarban district. According to the census of 1991, there are 1,349 Bawm families in Bangladesh with a total population 6,978.

Bedey

Bedey, a community belonging mainly to the ethnic Mong-tong (Mangta) of arakan, who in 1638, accompanied the fugitive king of Arakan, Ballal Raja, and later settled in Bikrampur area near dhaka. Many of them were converted to islam over time. Later, the Bedeys spread out to remote areas of Bengal and Assam. The Mangta people were popularly called Bedey after the Bangla word Baidda meaning village doctor. Bedeys pretend to know the art of healing, which they use as a source of living. They are skilled in hunting. Physically, they are quite close to Bangalis

Murong

Murong, The a tribe of Bangladesh. Murongs are one of the famous aborigines of arakan and the two Murong kings, who ruled Arakan in the tenth century, were A-mya-thu (957) and Pai-phyu (964). At that time Wathaly was the capital city of Arakan. Murongs had a bloody war with the khumis on the bank of the Koladain. The Khumi tribe defeated the Murongs and ousted them from Arakan. Murongs moved to chittagong hill tracts sometime between the 17th and 18th centuries. Many, however, believe that this happened in the 14th century. Murongs now live in lama, ruma, alikadam and thanchi upazilas near Chimbuk Mountain of bandarban district. In 1991, the Murong population in Bangladesh was 22,178 and constituted the fourth largest tribe in Chittagong Hill Tracts
 
   
 
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